When looking at inflation, economic institutions may focus only on certain kinds of prices, or special indices, such as the core inflation index which is used by central banks to formulate monetary policy. Economists believe that very high rates of inflation and hyperinflation are harmful, and are caused by excessive growth of the money supply. Views on which factors determine low to moderate rates of inflation are more varied. Low or moderate inflation may be attributed to fluctuations in real demand for goods and services, or changes in available supplies such as during scarcities. However, the consensus view is that a long sustained period of inflation is caused by money supply growing faster than the rate of economic growth. Inflation and interest rates are often linked and frequently referenced in macroeconomics. Inflation refers to the rate at which prices for goods and services rise. In the U.S., the interest rate is based on the federal funds rate that is determined by the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the U.S.; it is sometimes just referred to as the Fed. 2014 began with 1.58% annual inflation in January rising to 2.13%% in May.
If unemployment was 6%—and through monetary and fiscal stimulus, the rate was lowered to 5%—the impact on inflation would be negligible. In other words, with a 1% fall in unemployment, prices would not rise by much. Since a Phillips Curve for a specific economy would show an explicit level of inflation for a specific rate of unemployment and vice versa, it should be possible to aim for a balance between desired levels of inflation and unemployment. The monetarist theory is a concept that contends that changes in money supply are the most significant determinants of the rate of economic growth. Monetarism is a macroeconomic theory, which states that governments can foster economic stability by targeting the growth rate of the money supply. The below chart demonstrates the inverse correlation between interest rates and inflation.
In economics, we refer to these as the demand-pull effect and the cost-push effect. Yellen forgets that the Obama/Biden Administration is spending like drunken sailors on BS liberal insane initiatives. The trillions they have already added and the trillions more they are planning to add will come at a cost. The borrowings on this debt will be massive and the higher the interest rates go, the more of the US budget will be spent on interest payments. “We’ve been fighting inflation that’s too low and interest rates that are too low now for a decade,” Yellen told Bloomberg in an interview Sunday. On previous occasions, the S&P 500 was higher six months later 82% of the time, with a median gain of 6.9%.
In February 2015 gasoline prices across the country had ticked up again slightly and were averaging $2.343/ gallon. If we take a longer-term view we can see the size and frequency of the previous Quantitative Easings, each of which created a progressively larger jump in FED assets. QE3 took it to 4.5 Trillion and then the FED tried tightening bringing assets slightly below 4 Trillion. But then along came QE4 and FED assets jumped straight to over 7 Trillion… growth slowed for a bit and then steadily climbed above 7.9 Trillion. On the other hand, if inflation falls below 1% it sparks deflationary fears and quantitative easing. May’s monthly inflation was 0.80% virtually identical to April’s 0.82%, March was 0.71%, February was 0.55%, and January was 0.43%. Annual inflation for the 12 months ending in May was 4.99%, April was 4.16% up very sharply from March’s 2.62%. Note the declining Long Term Linear Regression line and the peak at 6.29% in October of 1990 while theOil Peak in July 2008 was “only” 5.60% followed by successively lower peaks.
High or unpredictable inflation rates are regarded as harmful to an overall economy. They add inefficiencies in the market, and make it difficult for companies to budget or plan long-term. Inflation can act as a drag on productivity as companies are forced to shift resources away from products and services to focus on profit and losses from currency inflation. Uncertainty about the future purchasing power of money discourages investment and saving.
Over time, adjustments are also made to the type of goods and services selected to reflect changes in the sorts of goods and services purchased by ‘typical consumers’. New products may be introduced, older products disappear, the quality of existing products may change, and consumer preferences can shift. Both the sorts of goods and services which are included in the «basket» and the weighted price used in inflation measures will be changed over time to keep pace with the changing marketplace. Different segments of the population may naturally consume different «baskets» of goods and services and may even experience different inflation rates. It is argued that companies have put more innovation into bringing down prices for wealthy families than for poor families. Therefore, over the long-term, higher inflation would not benefit the economy through a lower rate of unemployment.
If the inflation rate is greater than your interest rate on debt, you benefit by repaying the debt with less-valuable money. In countries that don’t manage interest rates as the U.S. does, debt becomes cheaper with inflation, which can accelerate inflation further. The problem with this is that taxes will rise on corporations which will negatively impact corporate earnings and money for R&D and other activities that add value. At the same time, consumers will pay more because these taxes will be pushed down to the consumers. Finally, the tax dollars will go to countries and wasted by corrupt politicians like those in the Obama/Biden Administration. In May 2021 the rate of change of the Italian harmonized index of consumer prices was -0,1% on monthly basis and +1.2% on annual basis (from +1.0% in April); the flash estimate was +1.3%. In May 2021 the rate of change of Italian consumer price index for the whole nation was null compared with the previous month and +1.3% on annual basis (from +1.1% in April), confirming the flash estimate. The U.S. central bank has the ability, through various tools, to manipulate short-term interest rates. So before the economic party gets out of hand and stagflation takes hold, the Fed steps in to calm things down by increasing the cost of borrowing in an effort to gradually slow the economy rather than let it crash and burn.
Imagine being a big gov’t stooge like Biden and reality hits like a ton of bricks like this. Inflation is going to be a huge test for this admin and they are going to do the exact opposite of what they should. Because big liberal solutions > fixing things. https://t.co/naYApZqwcn
— John C. Barry (@ShrinkGov) July 1, 2021
Raising interest rates in the U.S. helps savings keep up with inflation to avoid this dilemma. When you purchase a stock, for example in Walmart or IBM, you are actually buying a long stream of future cash flows based on the profits of the company. If economic growth matches the growth of the money supply, inflation should not occur when all else is equal. For example, investment in market production, infrastructure, education, and preventive health care can all grow an economy in greater amounts than the investment spending. Another concept of note is the potential output (sometimes called the «natural gross domestic product»), a level of GDP, where the economy is at its optimal level of production given institutional and natural constraints. If GDP falls below its potential level , inflation will decelerate as suppliers attempt to fill excess capacity, cutting prices and undermining built-in inflation.
In an environment where there is hyperinflation, price increases are rapid and uncontrolled. While central banks generally target an annual inflation rate of around 2% to 3% , hyperinflation goes well beyond this. Countries that experience hyperinflation sometimes have an inflation rate of 50% or more per month. Under a fixed exchange rate currency regime, a country’s currency is tied in value to another single currency or to a basket of other currencies . A fixed exchange rate is usually used to stabilize the value of a currency, vis-a-vis the currency it is pegged to. However, as the value of the reference currency rises and falls, so does the currency pegged to it. This essentially means that the inflation rate in the fixed exchange rate country is determined by the inflation rate of the country the currency is pegged to. In addition, a fixed exchange rate prevents a government from using domestic monetary policy to achieve macroeconomic stability. This redistribution of purchasing power will also occur between international trading partners.
When unemployment is high, the number of people looking for work significantly exceeds the number of jobs available. In other words, the supply of labor is greater than the demand for it. Monetary theory is a set of ideas about how changes in the money supply impact levels of economic activity. After each of the eight FOMC meetings, an announcement is made regarding the Fed’s decision to increase, decrease, or maintain key interest rates. Certain markets may move in advance of the opposite of inflation anticipated interest rate changes and in response to the actual announcements. For example, the U.S. dollar typically rallies in response to an interest rate increase, while the bond market falls in reaction to rate hikes. As long as the subsequent $90 loan is outstanding, there are two claims totaling $190 in the economy. As a heavily simplified demonstration of the money supply grows, suppose that when someone deposits $100 into the bank, they maintain a claim on that $100.
This can lead to prolonged disequilibrium and high unemployment in the labor market. That substitution would cause market clearing real interest rates to fall. The lower real rate of interest would induce more borrowing to finance investment. In a similar vein, Nobel laureate James Tobin noted that such inflation would cause businesses to substitute investment in physical capital for money balances in their asset portfolios.